Shaded Relief

Elevation Models for Reproducible Evaluation of Terrain Representation

Kennelly, P. J., Patterson, T., Jenny, B. (shared first authorship), Huffman, D. P., Marston, B. E., Bell, S. and Tait, A. M. (2020). Cartography and Geographic Information Science.

Aerial Perspective for Shaded Relief

Jenny, B. and Patterson T. (2020). Cartography and Geographic Information Science. An automated technique inspired by the manual work of Eduard Imhof.

Designing 3D Terrain Maps (PDF, 2.4MB)

Article published in the ICA 11th Mountain Cartography Workshop Proceedings. The May 2018 workshop was held on the island of Hvar, Croatia. A PDF of the full workshop proceedings will be available later this summer.

The Equal Earth Map Projection  

Learn about the design and development of the Equal Earth projection in this August 7, 2018, article published in the International Journal of Geographical Information Science.

Producing Manual Small-Scale Shaded Relief

My article published in the ICA 10th Mountain Cartography Workshop Proceedings. The April 2016 workshop was held in the Alps near Berchtesgaden, Germany. For a PDF of the full workshop proceedings, click here.

Relief Presentation on US National Park Service Maps (PDF, 3.8MB)

Patterson, T. (2016). Mountain Cartography. 16 Years ICA Commission on Mountain Cartography. Chapter examining the evolution of relief presentations on maps by Harpers Ferry Center, the media service center of the US National Park Service.

The Natural Earth II world map projection

Šavrič, B., Patterson, T. and Jenny, B. (2016). The Natural Earth II world map projection. International Journal of Cartography (online access, ahead-of-print), p. 1–11.

Introducing the Patterson Cylindrical Projection

Patterson, T.,  Šavrič, B., and Jenny, B. (2015). Cartographic Perspectives (No.78). Describes the projection design and characteristics, and developing the equations.

A compromise aspect-adaptive cylindrical projection for world maps

Jenny, B., Šavrič, B., and Patterson, T. (2015). International Journal of Geographical Information Science.

Mountains Unseen: Developing a Relief Map of the Hawaiian Seafloor  

Article in Cartographic Perspectives (No. 76) about developing the Seafloor Map of Hawai‘i. The article explains how to depict the huge mountains and canyons of undersea Hawai‘i with multi-beam bathymetry and plan oblique relief.

Making 3D TerrainEvaluating Cross-blended Hypsometric Tints: A User Study in the United States, Switzerland, and Germany

The results of a survey with 200 participants comparing cross-blended hypsometric tints (elevation colors) with conventional hypsometric tints. The survey revealed significant differences between map readers in the US and those in Europe.

The Design of Gray Earth: A Monochrome Terrain Dataset of the World

A Web preview of an article that will apepar in Cartographic Perspectives No. 74. The article discusses Gray Earth, the newest raster basemap in the Natural Earth collection, featuring shaded relief merged with locally-enhanced hypsometric tints.

Blending world map projections with Flex Projector

Jenny, B. and Patterson, T. (2013). Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 40-4, p. 289–296.

Creating Natural Earth Map Data

This retrospective paper examines the creation of Natural Earth raster data, now available in three versions, and discusses possible future additions to the dataset. Presented at the New Zealand Cartographic Association, Geocart2012 conference.

Shaded Relief Archive—A Digital Repository for Cartographic Relief Art

An article about the Shaded Relief Archive project published in World of Museums magazine, summer 2012, Moscow. By T. Patterson and B. Jenny. Available in English and in Russian with additional introductory text and illustrations by A.Kovalev.

A polynomial equation for the Natural Earth projection

Šavrič, B., Jenny, B., Patterson, T., Petrovič, D. and Hurni, L. (2011). Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 38-4, p. 363–372.

Making 3D TerraGraphischer Netzentwurf für Weltkarten mit Flex Projector – Graphic map projection for world maps with Flex Maps

Jenny, B., Patterson, T. and Hurni, L. (2011). Kartographische Nachrichten, 61-3, p. 133–139 [German].

The Development and Rationale of Cross-blended Hypsometric Tints

Cross-blended hypsometric tints employ variable lowland colors customized to match the differing natural environments of world regions. Green is absent from arid lowlands, as is typical of traditional hypsometric tints. Published in Cartographic Perspectives (No. 69, 2011), the journal of the NACIS.

Introducing Natural Earth Data –

Paper presented with Nathaniel V. Kelso at the 2010 ICA Mountain Cartography Workshop, Borsa, Romania.

Cartographic Perspectives Special issue on Mountain Cartography (67)

Jenny, B. and Patterson, T. (letter from the guest editors) (2010).

Graphical design of world map projections

Jenny, B., Patterson, T. and Hurni, L. (2010). International Journal of Geographical Information Science.

Outside the Bubble: Real-world Mapmaking Advice for Students  

Maps made in a university class differ from those made by careerists in terms of purpose and design. I discuss what these differences are, why they exist, and the changes students can expect when transitioning to the professional ranks. Published in Cartographic Perspectives (No. 65, Winter 2010), the journal of NACIS.

Natural Earth Vector

Patterson, T and Kelso, N. (2009). Cartographic Perspectives (No.64). Natural Earth Vector is a public domain, dataset available at 1:10, 1:50, and 1:110-million scales. .

Flex Projector—Interactive software for designing world map projections

Jenny, B., Patterson, T. and Hurni L. (2008). Cartographic Perspectives (No. 59, Winter 2008), p. 12–27 and 68.

NACIS Map Design Survey (PDF, 2.4 MB)

Results from an online survey that gives a snapshot of the opinions held by the mapping community on map design. Published in Cartographic Perspectives (No. 57, Spring 2008), the journal of the NACIS.

Creating a National Geographic-style Physical Map of the World

Paper presented at the 2008 ICA Mountain Cartography Workshop, Lenk, Switzerland.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of 2D vs. 3D Trailhead Maps

A study conducted at Zion National Park by David Schobesberger, University of Vienna, Austria, to determine which type of map best communicates trail information to hikers at trailhead signboards. The study involved 185 on trail interviews and over 300 passive observations of people reading trailhead maps.

Flex Projector—Interactive Software for Designing World Map Projections

A disussion of Flex Projector software and the development of the Natural Earth projection, a pseudocylindrical projection designed specifically for presenting world physical data. Published in Cartographic Perspectives (No. 59, Winter 2008), the journal of the North American Cartographic Information Society (NACIS).

Introducing Plan Oblique Relief (2.5 MB)  

Read about plan oblique relief, a new digital technique for rendering three-dimensional terrain on planimetric maps. Published in Cartographic Perspectives (No. 57, Spring 2007), the journal of the NACIS.

Developing a New Visitor Map of Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

Producing a National Park Service visitor map is a collaborative effort involving many people. The article discusses this and the challenge of mapping a remote mountain and marine wilderness for a unique audience of park visitors—cruise ship passengers.

Looking Closer: A Guide to Making Bird's-eye Views of National Park Service Cultural and Historical Sites

In-depth discussion of NPS bird's-eye views and practical design and production tips about large-scale 3D mapping. The accompanying image gallery showcases some 30 years of work by NPS contract illustrators, in both traditional and digital forms. Published in Cartographic Perspectives (No. 52, Fall 2005).

Hal Shelton Revisited: Designing and Producing Natural-Color Maps with Satellite Land Cover Data  

Based on Hal Shelton's pioneering work a half century ago, this paper discusses how to produce natural-color maps with digital data. An image gallery takes you on a tour of North America from the arctic archipelago of Canada to the volcanoes of southern Mexico. First published in Cartographic Perspectives (No. 47, Winter 2004).

Using Cross-blended Hypsometric Tints for Generalized Environmental Mapping

A technique in Photoshop for systematically creating continuous-tone hypsometric tints that mimic natural vegetation colors. Small-scale maps are the intended use.

Getting Real: Reflecting on the New Look of National Park Service Maps

An examination of the techniques developed by the NPS for designing 2D plan maps with a faux realistic look. A gallery of images rewards readers who make it all the way to the end. Published in Cartographic Perspectives (No. 43, Fall 2002).

DEM Manipulation and 3D Terrain Visualization: Techniques used by the U.S. National Park Service

This illustrated piece discusses the manipulation of raw DEM data in Photoshop for creating 3D cartographic special effects. Published in the special ICA Commission on Mountain Cartography issue (Vol. 38) of Cartographica, the journal of the Canadian Cartographic Association.

A View from on High: Heinrich Berann's Panoramas and Landscape Visualization Techniques for the U.S. National Park Service Terrain Maps

This paper analyzes the work of the late Heinrich Berann, the master traditional panoramist from Lans, Austria. The article includes illustrations comparing Berann's panoramas to digital landscapes and four hi-res panoramas for downloading (great for making screen savers). The paper was first presented at the 2000 ICA Mountain Cartography Workshop, Rudolfshutte, Austria and was later published in the Spring 2000 issue (Vol. 36) of Cartographic Perspectives.

A Desktop Approach to Shaded Relief Production

An examination of shaded relief production and presentation techniques using Photoshop 4.0 and higher. The article appeared in the Winter 1997 (No. 36) issue of Cartographic Perspectives, the journal of the NACIS.

3D Landscape Presentation: Experiments at the U.S. National Park Service

An illustrated paper that reports on techniques developed by the National Park Service for the production, presentation, and manipulation of 3D landscapes. Presented at the 1998 Mountain Cartography Workshop, Bielerhöhe, Austria.

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